My latest Journal article "Turkey's approach to Iran's Shia Crescent" is now available at: https://rasanah-iiis.org/english/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2020/02/TURKEY%E2%80%99S-APPROACH-TO-IRAN%E2%80%99S-SHIA-CRESCENT.pdf. It is part of a special issue (8, 2018) by the "Journal For Iranian Studies" dedicated to investigate "Iran's role in the Middle East: The Prospect of a Shia Crescent Emerging".
The "Journal For Iranian Studies" is the scientific publication of "Rasanah. International Institute for Iranian Studies", a worldwide renowned Saudi think tank.
ABSTRACT: The Middle East has experienced several critical junctures since King Abdullah of Jordan first warned his Arab counterparts in 2004 about Iran’s design to project abroad its political, religious and military influence. Due to bitter domestic factionalism between President Ahmadinejad and the Rahbar Khamenei, the emergence of a “Shia crescent” was relatively kept under control by rival Arab countries as long as Iran was isolated from international politics. However, the outburst of the Arab Spring in 2011, the ensuing human tragedy in Syria and the sealing of a historical deal on the nuclear issue between Iran and Western powers all signalled that such a prospect would become a major existential threat for them.